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Communications & Media
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
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Policy Topics Annotated Bibliography Communications & Media Paper (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


Please choose one of the policy topics:
1. Policy Processes
2. Access & Digital Inequalities
3. Copyright
4. Cyber Security & Crime
5. Privacy and Surveillance
6. Net Neutrality
7. Tech Accountability and The US Election
Find ten (10) journal articles that deal with the policy topic you selected.
Choose 3 of the ten articles, read the articles and add a bibliographic annotation with the following components:
1. Briefly describes the topic of the article (100–180 words)
2. Critically assesses its contents (100–180 words).
Guildline document and example included.



Annotated bibliography

Due: Dec. 3, 2019

The work of scholars in the research field of media and information law, economics and policy is published regularly, among other things, in academic journals.

Goals of this assignment:

  • Show your skills to do research on a media and information policy topic and identify relevant scholarly work

  • Attain or foster skills to read, comprehend and critically evaluate a scientific article

  • Identify the main arguments and/or other relevant information

  • Synthesize, relate and simplify concepts and ideas

  • Stimulate analytical and critical thinking

  • Broaden your understanding of a media and information policy issue


Please choose one of the policy topics:

  1. Policy Processes

  2. Access & Digital Inequalities

  3. Copyright

  4. Cyber Security & Crime

  5. Privacy and Surveillance

  6. Net Neutrality

  7. Tech Accountability and The US Election

and find ten (10) journal articles that deal with the policy topic you selected.


Part 1:

Compile a reference list of the 10 articles. You need read at least the abstract and conclusion to decide whether or not this article's topic is indeed on media and information policy. 

Your citations have to follow a consistent style, for example: 

One author:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal , Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number–last page number.

Two or more authors:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal , Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

Part 2:

Choose 3 of the ten articles, read the articles and add a bibliographic annotation with the following components: 

  1. 1.      Briefly describes the topic of the article (100–180 words)  

  2. 2.      Critically assesses its contents (100–180 words).  

Write complete and meaningful sentences (no fragments).  


Topic: Surveillance, cybercrime and cybersecurity Rustad, M., & Koenig, T. (2005). The Tort of Negligent Enablement of Cybercrime. Berkeley Technology Law Journal,20(4), 1553-1611 Goss, D. (2017). Operationalizing Cybersecurity — Framing Efforts to Secure U.S. Information Systems. The Cyber Defense Review, 2(2), 91-110 Overview: Operationalizing Cyber Security touches on many areas, the deepest part revolves around the policy, and other areas of the article point back to policy related issues. Some of the problems in operationalizing cybersecurity are discussed and pointed to an ambiguity of terms, and application. For instance, Policy can point to a high-level organization document that outlays the organizations cyber security principles, and how they will be achieved through strategy and tactics, whereas a policy can be also defined as a technical control. This often causes confusion for those who did not write the policy documents, but rather those in the technical capacities charged with enforcing them or implementing as it may be. Analysis: This article puts a heavy emphasis midway through on the parts of policy where issues arise. Part of the larger issue is the emphasis put on technical controls without a defined goal in mind; “to protect data” is too broad, and unclear, and does not give a clear desire for the needed controls and policies around them. The fact that most emphasis is put on technical controls without policy backing also causes issues, particularly where policy lacks at the staff organizational level in terms of what you can and cannot use organizational equipment for, proper computing care, device management, etc, which without policy leaves the door open for interpretation and no recourse for enforcement. Policy is an important piece of defining what the organization does, and how the policy from and administrative standpoint supports that, and then further detailing the technical controls therein. Simply working to maintain the CIA Triad, is not sustainable, nor is it always necessary, as some data requires no confidentiality, some may not even require accessibility, but the integrity of the data is the most important piece, always. Deep detail needs to accompany these goals with operational policy that will further strengthen cybersecurity controls. The controls are only as good as the policy that enforces their use cases, and conversely cases where exceptions to standard policy may be required. Harknett, R., & Stever, J. (2011). The New Policy World of Cybersecurity. Public Administration Review, 71(3), 455-460. Description: The New Policy World of Cybersecurity discusses the lack of results that have been seen from Bush and Obama era government interventions in terms of cybersecurity policy framework, as well as the different approaches. The Bush admin, levied the DHS to develop, enhance and implement cybersecurity frameworks, where the Obama administration opted to direct these activities directly from the White House, changing the point of responsibility and changing the style in which policy is developed. However, with the differences in both, neither was able to show undisputable evidence that their policy efforts thwarted any specific threats or helped secure any infrastructure better than it currently had been. Further the article discusses that even with governmental backing, the concepts of cybersecurity policy development and implementation are significantly disjointed, making adoption, application and results difficult to achieve across all industries. Analysis: Cybersecurity is a massive and ever-changing landscape. New products come online, old products stay online pas their usefulness. Systems and devices are inappropriately left connected even after retirement. Policy is a struggle. With so many different industries, changing administrations, the addition of international cybersecurity threats, finding a logical and successful approach is difficult. The matrices which are used to determine what policy areas are applicable are rather ambiguous, making following the policy standards from a top down approach difficult. Certain industries need to develop specific policies around the type of business they conduct. Of course, baseline policies are good in terms of systems management practices which affects all industries, which may be the only place top down policy works. Otherwise we must look laterally at all industries and determine what policies should be developed and how their implementation should take shape. Polices relating to energy infrastructure may share some similarities with health care, however, there should be significant differences, yet no top down policy exists that delineates those differences, therefore things such as HIPAA, FERPA, Sarbanes Oxley and others exist in a siloed top down manner. Ajir, M., & Vailliant, B. (2018). Russian Information Warfare: Implications for Deterrence Theory. Strategic Studies Quarterly,12(3), 70-89. Snyder, D., Powers, J., Bodine-Baron, E., Fox, B., Kendrick, L., & Powell, M. (2015). Cybersecurity Laws and Policies. In Improving the Cybersecurity of U.S. Air Force Military Systems Throughout Their Life Cycles (pp. 18-39). Hof, S. and Koops, B. (2011), Adolescents and Cybercrime: Navigating between Freedom and Control. Policy & Internet, 3: 1-28 Description: With widespread use of online services and technologies, it is prudent that we take policy steps in conjunction with legal steps to protect youth using these services and technologies. As another generation of digital natives begin to adopt technologies that many of us did not get our hands on until adulthood, it’s important that we play a pivotal role in the online safety of our children, and that we stay informed about their activities and keep them reasonably protected as best as we can. It’s critically important with the continued rise in cyberbullying, and grooming efforts by online predators. These types of things need to have policy and legal ramifications around them, however placing these controls cautiously without infringing on the freedoms of the users. Analysis: While legislation and policy are imperative to the wellbeing of our online communities, it is an intensely difficult proposition to wrap policy and legislation around everything that happens online in the name of safety and protection. Further, the author eludes to the notion that policy can’t stop what attentive and active parents can and should stop. The communication between parents and adolescents is critically important to their online safety and potentially more effective than any policy could be. Finding ways to encourage positive and productive use of technology and dissuading kids from using technology in an inappropriate and harmful manner or falling victim to hose seeking out adolescents online can be most effectively combatted at home. It is also worth noting that the grey area the internet brings us with international law and differences in standards and guaranteed protections of citizens of different countries. The differences in standards make blanket policy of an international system such as the internet nearly impossible, and further, things illegal in many civilized countries, are not considered illegal activities in others. The most effective way to manage these threats of danger is to remain involved in the online activities of the youth, and to ensure within our country specifically that we do everything we can to prosecute and convict those who prey on adolescents should they attempt or worse, become successful. These types of strong penalties will help deter to some degree the inappropriate and illegal activities that target youth online. For the remainder we must remain vigilant and educated adolescent internet users of the dangers that exist and how to avoid falling victim. Bauer J.M., van Eeten M.J.G. (2009) Cybersecurity: Stakeholder incentives, externalities, and policy options. Telecommunications Policy, 33(10-11) 706-719 Tropina, T. (2013). Organized Crime in Cyberspace. In Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung & Schönenberg R., Transnational Organized Crime: Analyses of a Global Challenge to Democracy ( 47-60). Jamil, Z. (2012). Global Fight Against Cybercrime: Undoing the Paralysis. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 109-120. Dean, B. (2016). Natural and Quasi-Natural Experiments to Evaluate Cybersecurity Policies. Journal of International Affairs,70(1), 139-160.


Annotated Bibliography
Course code:
Topic: Net Neutrality
BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Greenstein, S., Peitz, M., & Tommaso. (2016). Net Neutrality: A Fast Lane to Understanding the Trade-offs. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 127–150.
Hart, J. A. (2011, May 24). The Net Neutrality Debate in the United States. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 8(4), 418-443. Retrieved from
The article focuses on a debate ignited by a telecommunication bill that was proposed in 2006 but was rejected on the grounds that it did not guarantee the net neutrality will be upheld. The Republicans opposed the need for the guarantees while the Democrats supported them and the debate continued for years and it was a topic of discussion in the campaigns leading to the 2008 presidential elections. The opposing sides included the cable companies and conservative economists that argued that the guarantees would ruin the internet because the internet service providers will not have the incentives to offer a fast and reliable internet connection. Those that supported the guaranteed insisted on the need to preserve the internet as a free commodity accessible to all and to prevent the abuse of market power by the internet service providers.

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