Annotated Bibliography: Review of General Psychology (Annotated Bibliography Sample)
There are 4 articles that need an Annotated Bibliography. The format will include each reference in APA style followed by a 400-500 word summary of the article, including the student’s specific concerns/accolades about methodology or conclusions.
Each source must be correctly cited using APA Style, and should answer the following questions in 500 words or less for each source:
1. What is the author’s major argument? What is the hypothesis or hypotheses of the study?
2. What methods, or lens, is the author using to make his/her argument?
3. What type of evidence does this author use to make his/her argument and its effectiveness?
4. How effective was the method at testing the hypotheses? Would you do anything differently? Why or why not (what did you like or not like)?
5. I need 2 questions at the end of each article based on: What questions remain about this topic? Do you think the author drew valid conclusions from the results?
McKibbin, W. F., Shackelford, T. K., Goetz, A. T., & Starratt, V. G. (2008). Why do men rape? An evolutionary psychological perspective. Review of General Psychology, 12(1), 86-97.
In this article, the authors argue that evolutionary psychology is a tool that is effective in studying rape. They state that men have developed psychological mechanisms that enhance possibilities of raping women in specific contexts. The authors hypothesize that rape is a conditional mating tactic evident in all men from various ancestral contexts that have created five types of rapist. The disadvantaged rapists are those men who resort to rape because they lack other ways of securing sexual intercourse because of factors such as poor economic status and unattractiveness. Specialized rapists are aroused by violent sexual stimulation. Opportunistic rapists are those who seek out vulnerability in women such as lack of strong male support in a woman’s life. High-mating-efforts rapists are men with psychopathic trait to always have sexual intercourse. Finally, partner rapists occurs because of the conditions of sperm competition especially when husbands and wives have not had sex for a longer period of time.
The methods that the researchers used in coming up with their argument is studying the hypotheses of sexual coercion as seen in male species where such males are found to be more violent, aggressive, and eager to mate. The authors compared the evolutionary psychology of two male species that have been known to rape their females. The male scorpionflies result to rape when they are not able to fulfil the female conditions to provide food and since they cannot get mates, they rape the females. The researchers also compared the male orangutans and found out that the small orangutans are not attractive to females and so they chase females down and rape them. The authors used this method to determine male behavior when resulting to rape.
To make the augment more effective the authors present evidence about females who have also developed a psychological mechanism as a defense against rapists. The authors believe that women seek out physically and socially dominant males in an effort to evade rapists. This evidence goes to show that weaker males have fewer females to have sexual intercourse with and this pushes them to be rapists. Women often are attractive to, and form alliances with strong males to deter who would be rapists.
The method of using psychological adaptation among males in their interaction with females is used effectively to explain rapist behavior. However, it would be more effective to use evidence from human species rather than animal species to gather evidence because humans have a reasoning capacity compared to animals.
What other factors such as behavioral or genetic lead males to be rapists? Does these psychological adaptions change with time?
Jenkins, W. J. (2010). Can anyone tell me why I’m gay? What research suggests regarding the origins of sexual orientation. North American Journal of Psychology, 12(2).
In this article, Jenkins argues that various factors are connected to the development of homosexual behavior in terms of prenatal growth, brain function, behavioral factors, childhood and adolescence, and also the plasticity of sexual behavior. The author claims that homosexuality has been linked to some form of prenatal testosterone deficiency in cases where the mothers of homosexuals were more stressed. The author also points out that studies have showed a difference in brain function in heterosexuals and homosexual such as the brain hypothalamus called INAH-3 that is larger in heterosexuals compared to homosexuals and even other differences in spatial memory, verbal fluency, and expressions of emotion. The...
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