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Essay Available:
9 pages/≈2475 words
15 Sources
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Searchable Clinical Question with Annotated Biblography (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


All articles must be within a 5 year time frame. Please follow the directions on the Searchable Clinical Question with Annotated Bibliography Form (which includes rubric of expectations. )Attached is the Clinical Question Form in which the information is to be added. I have also accompanied an example of the annotated bibliography. The area of focus should be anything in the mental health/ substance abuse areas.


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Searchable Clinical Question with Annotated Bibliography
Intrauterine exposure to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other illicit drinks remains a growing challenge in several nations, an aspect that demonstrates a steady increase in neonates that require treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Intrauterine exposures to alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco are therefore associated with neonatal co morbidities that include intrauterine growth restrictions, low birth weight, and prematurity. Co morbidities that arise from substance abuse among pregnant women irrespective of the substance used place undue burdens on the healthcare system and the society as a whole. Given this, it is essential to consider that the material substance abused during a pregnancy and the related co morbidities are viewed as broad, with several neonatal manifestations. In this case, it is vital to consider that this paper seeks to conduct an annotation on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug screening approaches in pregnancy.
Yonkers, K. A., Gotman, N., Kershaw, T., Forray, A., Howell, H. B., & Rounsville, B. J. (2012). Screening for prenatal substance use: Development of the substance use risk profile-pregnancy scale. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 4, 827-833.
Retrieved from PUBMED, substance abuse among pregnant women and parenting women is considered as one of the most challenging elements that call for the development of early parenting interventions. Valuable efforts aimed at establishing interventions designed to addressing this aspect remain of the essence. The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, especially binge drinking may result in lifelong cognitive and physical effects. As established in this literature, fetal alcoholism spectrum disorder (FASD) is considered as a continuum of outcomes in children that are prenatally exposed to alcohol, an aspect that clearly establishes the need to induce diagnostic measures on fetal alcohol syndrome.
Prenatal alcohol exposure, on the other hand, may result in growth retardations, facial abnormalities, small head circumference, and delayed brain growth. Besides physical features, it is essential to establish that prenatal exposures to alcohol may be linked to mental illnesses, psychosocial functioning, and conduct disorders. As established in the journal, intrauterine exposures to drugs and substances during pregnancy may be associated with reduced height and weight cases at six years of age and long-term neurodevelopment effects. In consideration of the myriad of consequences resulting from intrauterine exposures to substances, the absence of prematurity and other congenital defects, newborns that face withdrawal from intrauterine exposures to opiate require immediate treatment.
Given this, it is essential to consider that a Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is described as a constellation of symptoms in neonates that are exposed to opiates in the uterus. If the umbilical cord is cut and the neonate’s source of opiate is removed, the process of withdrawal takes place. On the other hand, it is vital to consider that smoking during the period of pregnancy can impact pregnancy as well, with this source citing exposure to risks of ectopic pregnancy. Tobacco use during pregnancy is additionally linked to low birth weights, placental abruptions, premature deliveries, and intrauterine deaths, with evidence linking smoking during pregnancy as an aspect that would result in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
Turnbull, C., & Osborn, D. A. (2012). Home visits during pregnancy and after birth for women with an alcohol or drug problem (Review). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. ht...
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