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Health, Medicine, Nursing
Annotated Bibliography
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Examining Effective Teaching Methods for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS during Pregnancy (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


Please please writer read the instruction before you start writing i really need this paper on time.
Annotated Bibliography
PLEASE NOTE: For HEED 419, we are modifying the traditional format of an annotated bibliography. The description below is for informational purposes only. Jacobsen text page 228 is also a good supplemental resource*
For Heed 419 we will modify the traditional format of an annotated bibliography as you learn the structure of research. In addition, each component in the annotation with the exception of the purpose of the study will have at least one evaluative sentence. There are 30 Annotations required for this course.
When turning in your Annotations, please:

Be sure to include an APA style cover page
Staple, bind and secure all annotations prior to turning in your document.

Structure of Heed 419 Annotated bibliography (1 page per annotation)
Each heading below must be in bold. If your annotation runs into the next page please be sure to be as brief as possible with no more than an additional 2-3 sentences.
Pay special attention to the content of each of your annotations. Each area should be written in complete sentences summarizing the major points of each of the required sections. Your aim is to give a snapshot of your article in your annotation.  You can rephrase this as you wish so that each annotation does not sound the same (the only area that can always sound the same or similar is the purpose). Do not use direct quotations from the article or speak in the first person.
Citation (do not write the word “citation” at the top of the page, simply cite the (1) article in APA format)
Purpose: This section explains why the study is being conducted (or publication aim) and what the study will accomplish in concise brief sentence(s). Example(s): “The purpose of this study was to” OR “This review explored”
Methods: This section should indicate the procedures or techniques being used in the study, when & where it took place. Researchers should also indicate whether or not the methods are quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. Research design should also be discussed here (examples: case-control, cross-sectional, correlational, longitudinal, etc.). Briefly describe how they carried out the study or how they went about reviewing prior work (number of studies used, how researchers conducted searches such as Boolean or Keyword searches). Highlight statics used (such as pearsons correlation, regression, etc.) If the participants were consented, that should be indicated here as well. Example (s): “One-hundred college students were recruited for this qualitative study (or this publication if it was not a study) then given a survey that examined….” “Researchers used a regression analysis to examine the relationships of sleep to obesity.”
Results: This section should include information specific to the population that the researcher intends to study as well as clearly identifying the setting in which this takes place. Statistical information (p-values, etc.) Example: “Results of this study indicated that…”
Discussion: This section should be a synthesis of key points in the authors analysis or findings,
not just a restatement of the research problem.
i. This section should bring things together,
ii. In this area you can highlight major points and its relevance to your particular research area.
iii. Most articles have a section where they discuss limitations. I would like for you to critically analyze and interpret your articles and mention shortcomings of the study that may influence the studies outcome, generalizability, methods, validity, reliability or interpretation of results and if so to what extent? Examples: flaws in study design, methods, consenting (or lack thereof). Example: “This study highlights ….. “ “This study improves our understanding… “ “Researchers failed to discuss informed consent…”
Future Research Implications: In this section you highlight how the study can be improved, maybe they need more diversity, maybe it would be good to make it more generalizable, while publications will express what needs to be done in the future I would like you to also think about what could be done to make it a stronger study or review.
Each annotation is worth 1.32 points.
Each section is worth 0.22 points (Citation, Purpose, Methods, Results, Discussion, Future Research Implications)
more information.
Each annotation should be 1-page. It is okay for a few of your annotations to go over 1 page by one or two additional sentences however they should not take up a page and a half. Submitting annotations that fill half of a single page implies that you have not captured the information necessary to describe the study to your audience/reader. If you are encountering either of these issues (too much information or not enough), my suggestion to you is that you spend time rereading your article and annotation to ensure that your annotations include the pertinent information listed on the Annotation Layout/Guidelines document (which is available via blackboard in the Annotated Bibliographies folder). If your writing is not clear and concise. In addition, be sure to include not only the analysis found in your articles but deductions that you have made about the strengths and weaknesses of the studies examined. Remember your annotations should highlight major points of the article. It should provide a brief glimpse into:
The aim of the study (purpose)
How the study was carried out, including its participants, location, qualitative, quantitative efforts etc. (methods) and study design
What was found (results)
Final take home message, what can be concluded from the article, its limitations (discussion)
What can be done to advance the research reviewed (future research implications). You should note what can be done to advance the study reviewed, even if the study mentions what can be done in future research you should also independently note something that can be done to advance the study
Also: be sure to use APA style headings for your annotations.


Examining Effective Teaching Methods for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS during Pregnancy
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Examining Effective Teaching Methods for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS during Pregnancy
1 Chopra, M. (2008). Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Africa; Operational research to reduce post-natal transmission and infant mortality. Acta Universtatis Upsaliensis. Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, 389.
The overall purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of PMTCT programme. More emphasis was on the reduction of HIV transmission from mother to child after birth and reduce infant mortality rates.
This study was as a result of two larger studies, the first was a prospective cohort study of mother to child HIV transmission that was conducted in South Africa whereas the second was an evaluation of PMTCT programmes in different countries. Therefore, a cohort study design was used in this research where visits were made to both HIV positive and negative mothers to establish infant feeding patterns. The total number of participants in this study were 665. Semi-structured and structured interviews were used to collect data from both mothers and caregivers. MS ACCESS was used to sort the quantitative data before being analyzed by Sata (v8).
The results of the study indicate that the implementation of PMTCT programmes is different across areas this might be due to differences in health systems. Consequently, the HIV rates and mortality rates differs across locations.
The results from the study suggested that the implementation of PMTCT programmes in disadvantaged areas requires extra attention to the socio-economic conditions of the people. This study emphasizes on the interventions that can be used to prevent mother to child HIV transmission and reduce the infant mortality rates in the society.
Future Research Implications
This research indicates that more needs to be done to reduce the gap between the efficacy and effectiveness of PMTCT programmes. Researchers need to focus on socio-economic conditions of people in disadvantaged areas. Also more ways improving the effectiveness of PMTCT programs need to be identified.
2 Abdula, M. (2015). Assessment of effectiveness of prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Asella teaching and referral hospital. Colleges of Health Sciences, Aris University: Ethiopia.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of PMTCT programmes by establishing the outcomes of the infants who have already been exposed to HIV. More emphasis was given to the chances of survival especially within the first 18 months.
This was carried in Asella teaching and referral hospital, College of health sciences, Arsi University, Ethiopia. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was employed in this research. The study included all HIV positive mothers with less than 18 months old children and were attending the ANC and ART clinics from 2012 to 2015. From the hospital’s records, HIV positive mothers within the years were 267.
A structured questionnaire that was adapted from ‘the national standard HIV exposed infant follow up chart and PMTCT registration logbook’. The collected data was cleaned and sorted into both soft and hard. After the data was cleaned it was analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences computer package version 21.
From the results, 7.7% of infants born with HIV tested positive after 18 months. However, the number of deaths...
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